All the notes and videos from the SOP course at Earist can be found below and a few photos and extra helpful videos. Other notes can be accessed at the side bar by clicking on the name.
From the end of the 2nd video sequence, the proceedure is to replace the valves/springs using the c-clamp. Then reattach the cylinder head to the engine block and reattach the rocker arm. Then place the engine cover on and replace the intake and exhaust manifolds. Reasssemble the timing gear and belts (2) (One belt connects the water and oil pump to the crankshaft, the other belt connects the injection pump camshaft rocker arm and crankshaft.
1. Clean Parts
2. Check Parts
3. Replace parts if necessary
4. Machine parts if necessary
Symptoms which suggest an overhaul is necessary
1. Smoky exhaust
2. Excessive oil Consumption
3. Loss of compression, hard to start (diesel) unstable or fluctuating idle speed (gasoline engine)
4. Excessive Fuel Consumption
5. Engine Knocking
6. Low Oil Pressure (65-80 psi is normal)
Low oil pressure may be because bearings are worn out, once the engine is hot the pressure drops because the viscosity of the oil is reduced.
Measure piston ring gaps, should be 10 and 12 thousanths of an inch- if larger they need to be replaced.
To remove intake and exhaust valves from cylinder head, use a c-clamp with a lever attached. Clamp on over the valve spring and pull lever to press down and release the nut and the spring and valves will be released. Grind intake and exhaust valves so they are flush , to prevent loss of compression.
After Re-assembly 6-8hrs to break in the engine. Then need to retighten cylinder head bolts and reset valve gaps. Cylinder head (and also connecting rod and crank shaft) are tightened with a torque wrench.
Check bearings and bearing shells. On crankshaft may need resurfacing in which case an undersize bearing may be needed.
If the cylinders are re-bored or grinded (gasoline engines) then may need oversizes piston rings to ensure compression.
Cylinder liners may be replaced also if required in diesel engines.
When replacing piston rings, the openings must be on opposite sides (u.....n around the piston))
This shows the first part of the process, dismantling and cleaning the components. The engine is rusted up a bit as it was flooded in the Ondoy Typhoon 1 year ago, so a bit of a challenge ! Part 2, the rebiuld to follow next week
This clips shows some tinkering with a jeep which wont start ! Various components checked and /or changed.
This film clip shows the proceedure/setup for the Lighting Circuits. Basically the proceedure is to connect up as per the wiring diagrams starting with the ammeter and ignition switch, then the park light curcuit, then the headlights (hi and low beam) then the brake and reverse lights, then signal lights and horn.
Videos shows the various components of the curcuits, relays, switches, fuses, and so on.
Tune up proceedure for Gasoline Jeep engine, setting valve gaps and distributie positioning and testing.
Film clip to show the proceedure for setting the ignition timing.
The rotor arm on the top of the distributor should be at 1 0'clock position when piston 1 is on the compression stroke. For piston number 2 it would be at 10 0'clock , for piston 3 it would be at 4 0'clock and for piston 4 at 7 0'clock, so as the engine is turned over the rotor arm also moves. This relates to a 1,3,4,2 firing order. If the piston 1 is at 1 0'clock then the high tension cable to that position should be attached to piston 1.
Proceedure for Ignition Tuning
Turn engine over with spanner to TDC then to 8 degrees such that piston 1 is on the compression stroke.
Remove the distributor lid/cables and unbolt the distributor and remove it.
In the hole, using a screwdriver ensure the groove is set at 12 o'Clock position. Set rotor arm to 11 0'clock position and insert the distributor back lowering it into position, push down and insert bolt loosely in position. Rotor arm should now be in 1 0'Clock position.
With the ignition switched on, disconnect the lead from the distributor cap and place near the engine and move the distributor until a spark is seen. Then tighten the bolt that holds the distributor in place to fix it in that position.
Reattach the cables to the distributor/spark plugs and start engine.
With a diesel engine rather than ignition timing we check injection timing
The video and subtitle illustrate the process of setting the intake and exhaust valve gaps .
A film clip of a gas jeep engine showing the proceedure for checking the engine tuning.
Continutiy testing of the gnition switch to identify which terminal is which. ie: Start, Accessories, Ignition, Battery.
The film clip shows the layout of pistons, valves, intake and exhaust manifolds etc (From July 31st session)
Running mate Piston (1 and 4) and (2 and 3)
Running Mate Event (Intake and power) (compression and exhaust)
Possible Firing order 1,3,4,2 (Isuzu, Toyota, Mitsubishi)) or 1,2,4,3 (Nissan)
In graphing of individual piston strokes we need to know, the firing order, running mate piston, running mate event, the rotation of the engine, (clockwise or anticlockwise) , the sequence of series of events (ie c-p, e-i) and the crank angle of the engine. For 4 cylinder 180' 4 strokes = 720' or 2 complete revolutions.
The Piston is going down so the volume of the cylinder is getting larger. The Intake valve is open. A vacuum, or pressure of less than atmospheric is created in the cylinder.
Atmospheric pressure forces air into the cylinder. 14.7 psi at sea level. Fuel is mixed with the air, and the cylinder is filled with the mixture of air and fuel.
The Piston is going up so the volume of the cylinder is getting smaller.Both valves are closed. Air/fuel mixture is trapped in the cylinder. Pressure is increasing. Mixture is compressed into approximately 1/8 it's original volume. 150 psi built up. As the mixture is compressed, it heats up.
The Piston is going down. Volume of the cylinder is increasing. Both valves closed. Spark plug fires, causing compressed air/fuel mixture to burn. The flame front travels across the combustion chamber.
The burning fuel creates tremendous pressure which forces the piston down. turning the crankshaft and producing power. This is not an explosion, but a smooth, controlled burn.
The Piston is going up, so the volume of the cylinder is getting smaller.
The Piston pushes the burned exhaust gasses out past the open exhaust valve, and out through the exhaust system and into the atmosphere.
Both valves are open for a short period of time at TDC. This is called "Valve Overlap"
The intake stroke of the new cycle follows this exhaust stroke.
Top Dead Center (TDC) - Point of uppermost travel of the piston and crankshaft.
Bottom Dead Center (BDC) - Point of lowermost travel of the piston and crankshaft.
Bore - Diameter of the cylinder.
Stroke - Distance the piston travels on a stroke, or the distance from TDC to BDC. The stroke is twice the distance of the throw.
Throw - The distance from the center of the main journal of the crankshaft to its rod journal. The throw is one half the distance of the stroke.
Just for fun a bit of footage from the monte carlo rally .
Just added a series of articles on automotive theory to the download sections. A number of items in categories: Engine Parts, Engine Electrical and Power Train /Underchassis.
In the Motorcycle section a few chapters from a free on-line course on motorcycle maintenance have been added too.
Others to follow ..